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Engineering Materials - Ceramics


Materials: Ceramics


Ceramic Types
Online Resources

 

Ceramic Types

Ceramics are generally separated into the following categories.

  1. Metallic Oxides

  2. Glass Ceramics

  3. Nitrides and Carbides

  4. Glass

  5. Carbon and Graphite

  6. Porcelain

  7. Ceramic Fibers
Ceramic Type
Characteristics
Metallic Oxides
Alumina
  • Abundant and easily fabricated.
  • Good strength and hardness.
  • Wear and Temperature Resistant.
  • Good electrical insulators.
  • Low dielectric loss.
Beryllium Oxides
  • Exceptionally high thermal conductivities (for ceramics) at low to moderate temperatures.
Zirconia
  • Extreme inertness to most metals.
  • Good toughness and strength.
Glass Ceramics
Glass-Ceramics
  • Low, medium or high thermal expansion depending on composition type.
  • Good electrical insulators.
  • Transparent
  • One can be machined with steel tools.
Nitrides and Carbides
Silicon Nitrides
  • Resistant to high temperatures, to thermal stress and shock.
  • High strength and oxidation resistant.
  • Good electrical insulators.
Boron Carbide
  • High hardness and low density.
  • Best abrasion resistance of any ceramic.
  • Low strength at high temperatures.
Silicon Carbides
  • Low electrical resistivity.
  • High strength and resistance to chemical attack, high temperature and thermal stress.
Tungsten Carbides
  • Used for tool tips.
  • Excellent hardness and mechanical strength.
  • Good thermal conductivity.
  • Good wear and abrasion resistance.
Glass
Glasses

  • Oxide (silica)
  • Silicates
  • Phosphates
  • Borosilicates
  • Good resistance to thermal shock.
  • Large range of special optical characteristics.
  • Transperent.
  • Low thermal expansion and high dielectric strength.
  • Good chemical resistance.
Carbon and Graphite
Carbons and Graphites
  • Poor strength except when produced as fibre.
  • Good electrical and thermal conductivity
  • Creep resistant at high temperatures in non-oxidizing conditions.
  • Self-lubricating.
  • Good refractoriness and thermal shock resistance.
  • Low density and chemically inert.
Carbon/Carbon Composites
  • High strength and low coefficient of thermal expansion at temperatures above 2000C.
  • Excellent thermal shock resistance.
  • Superior toughness, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity
  • Resistance to corrosion and abrasion.
  • High cost.
Porcelain
Porcelain
  • Good chemical and thermal resistance.
  • High density, strength, resistivity and dielectric strength
  • Good thermal shock, wear and hot strength.
  • Chemically inert.
Ceramic Fibers
Ceramic Fibers
  • Oxides spun to fiber and bulked to felt.
  • Used for high temperature insulation including former applications of asbestos.

 

 

 




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